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Los mejores comienzos en la literatura

Universia - 2 hours 56 min ago
Conoce los mejores comienzos de los cuentos y novelas más destacados de la literatura universal

Para los amantes de la literatura es bien conocido que, sin un buen comienzo no hay una buena historia. No hay nada más lindo que quedar atrapado en un libro tras leer las primeras líneas: estas son las que aseguran si la historia es lo que esperamos, superará nuestras expectativas o será un completo fracaso.

Hay libros que se destacan por sus mensajes, mientras hay otros que se brillan por la elaboración de su historia y el estilo con el que es contada. Pero hay unos muy particulares que se hicieron famosos por sus comienzos. Además de narrar historias impactantes, hay obras que parecen resumir todo el universo en solo un par de líneas.

No puede ser casualidad que las historias con los comienzos más determinantes se hayan convertido con el tiempo en clásicos de la literatura universal. La mano maestra de sus autores y su amplio dominio del lenguaje demostró que con solo algunos términos, bien dispuestos, se pueden resumir la esencia de una historia.

Si eres un amante de los libros y las buenas historias, te compartimos algunos de los mejores comienzos de historias en la literatura, para que los disfrutes y te den ganas de leer el libro entero.

La metamorfosis”, de  Franz Kafka

“Cuando Gregorio Samsa se despertó una mañana después de un sueño intranquilo, se encontró sobre su cama convertido en un monstruoso insecto.”

El extranjero”, de Albert Camus

“Hoy ha muerto mamá. O quizá ayer. No lo sé. Recibí un telegrama del asilo: "Falleció su madre. Entierro mañana. Sentidas condolencias". Pero no quiere decir nada. Quizá haya sido ayer.”

El nombre de la rosa”, Umberto Eco

“En el principio era el Verbo y el Verbo era en Dios, y el Verbo era Dios. Esto era en el principio, en Dios, y el monje fiel debería repetir cada día con salmodiante humildad ese acontecimiento inmutable cuya verdad es la única que puede afirmarse con certeza incontrovertible.”

Fahrenheit 451”, de Ray Bradbury

“Constituía un placer especial ver las cosas consumidas, ver los objetos ennegrecidos y cambiados. Con la punta de bronce del soplete en sus puños, con aquella gigantesca serpiente escupiendo su petróleo venenoso sobre el mundo, la sangre le latía en la cabeza y sus manos eran las de un fantástico director tocando todas las sinfonías del fuego y de las llamas para destruir los guiñapos y ruinas de la Historia.”

Los detectives salvajes”, Roberto Bolaño

“He sido cordialmente invitado a formar parte del realismo visceral. Por supuesto, he aceptado. No hubo ceremonia de iniciación. Mejor así.”

La máquina del tiempo”, de H. G. Wells

“El Viajero a través del Tiempo (pues convendrá llamarle así al hablar de él) nos exponía una misteriosa cuestión. Sus ojos grises brillaban lanzando centellas, y su rostro, habitualmente pálido, mostrábase encendido y animado. El fuego ardía fulgurante y el suave resplandor de las lámparas incandescentes, en forma de lirios de plata, se prendía en las burbujas que destellaban y subían dentro de nuestras copas.”

Memorias del subsuelo”, de Fiódor Dostoyevski

“Soy un hombre enfermo... Un hombre malo. No soy agradable. Creo que padezco del hígado. De todos modos, nada entiendo de mi enfermedad y no sé con certeza lo que me duele. No me cuido y jamás me he cuidado, aunque siento respeto por la medicina y los médicos. Además, soy extremadamente supersticioso, cuando menos lo bastante para respetar la medicina (tengo suficiente cultura para no ser supersticioso, pero lo soy). Sí, no quiero curarme por rabia. Esto, seguramente, ustedes no lo pueden entender. Pero yo sí lo entiendo.”

Las aventuras de Huckleberry Finn” de Mark Twain

“No sabréis quién soy yo si no habéis leído un libro titulado Las aventuras de Tom Sawyer, pero no importa. Ese libro lo escribió el señor Mark Twain y contó la verdad, casi siempre. Algunas cosas las exageró, pero casi siempre dijo la verdad. Eso no es nada.”

Lolita”, de Vladimir Nabokov

“Lolita, luz de mi vida, fuego de mis entrañas. Pecado mío, alma mía. Lo-li-ta: la punta de la lengua emprende un viaje de tres pasos desde el borde del paladar para apoyarse, en el tercero, en el borde de los dientes. Lo. Li. Ta. Era Lo, sencillamente Lo, por la mañana, un metro cuarenta y ocho de estatura con pies descalzos. Era Lola con pantalones. Era Dolly en la escuela. Era Dolores cuando firmaba. Pero en mis brazos era siempre Lolita.”

Rayuela”, de Julio Cortázar

“¿Encontraría a la Maga? Tantas veces me había bastado asomarme, viniendo por la rue de Seine, al arco que da al Quai de Conti, y apenas la luz de ceniza y olivo que flota sobre el río me dejaba distinguir las formas, ya su silueta delgada se inscribía en el Pont des Arts, a veces andando de un lado a otro, a veces detenida en el pretil de hierro, inclinada sobre el agua. Y era tan natural cruzar la calle, subir los peldaños del puente, entrar en su delgada cintura y acercarme a la Maga que sonreía sin sorpresa, convencida como yo de que un encuentro casual era lo menos casual en nuestras vidas, y que la gente que se da citas precisas es la misma que necesita papel rayado para escribirse o que aprieta desde abajo el tubo de dentífrico.”


Youngstown State adjuncts 'celebrate' 25 years without a raise

Inside Higher Ed - 2 hours 56 min ago

You only turn 25 years without a raise once. That was the idea behind a tongue-in-cheek party adjunct instructors at Youngstown State University threw for themselves this month, to mark a quarter-century without any increase in pay. 

Yes, there was cake. 

“My contribution to the event was a ‘then and now’ picture display of what some of the adjunct faculty looked like 25 years ago and what we look like now,” said Katherine Durrell, who has been teaching physics as an adjunct at Youngstown State since 2004. “The pictures of the 30-year-old adjuncts are really striking since they were five when we last got a raise.”

Youngstown State pays non-tenure-line instructors per credit hour and based on their level of education. Those with master’s degrees make $800 per credit hour, or $2,400 per three-credit course. Those with Ph.D.s get $1,050 per credit hour, or $3,150 per-three credit course.

Ron Cole, university spokesperson, said adjuncts also get free parking, sick leave and tuition remission, among other benefits (but not health insurance). He confirmed that it’s been between 20 and 25 years since adjuncts received a raise. 

It’s “fair to say that our president and provost recognize that that's a problem and, while we are facing some difficult budget challenges like most in higher ed, [we’re] committed to trying to rectify that situation,” Cole said. He noted that Martin Abraham, provost, formed a committee this fall to address adjunct faculty concerns, including pay. 

Durrell is on the committee and said it has been meeting regularly. So far, though, it hasn’t resulted in a raise.

“All I can say is that I have my fingers crossed,” she added.

Nationwide, adjunct salaries vary widely and data on them are hard to gather. A 2012 Coalition on the Academic Workforce report put the median per-course pay at $2,700, but that’s across disciplines, levels of experience, degrees, regions and institution types. 

Some adjuncts, especially those in major metropolitan areas with union organizing drives, have had luck in recent years winning pay raises and other improvements to their working conditions. Instructors at Tufts University, who are affiliated with Service Employees International Union, for example, in 2014 negotiated a first contract that increased their pay significantly, to at least $7,300 per course. Additional pay for non-classroom time, such as that spent meeting individually with students, was also included in the agreement.

Another contract agreement, reached last week between United Auto Workers-affiliated adjuncts at Barnard College, puts minimum per-course pay at $7,000 for this fall, and $10,000 by the fall of 2021. Both the union and the college said would be among the highest in New York City or elsewhere for those off the tenure track. Full-time, non-tenure track faculty members also are assured a minimum $60,000 salary, effective in fall 2017. That would rise to $70,000 by 2021.

Of course, Tufts and Barnard are relatively well-off, and both Boston and New York are pricier than Eastern Ohio. And while adjuncts at Youngstown State talked about forming a union several years ago, they have not. Yet many campuses -- with or without unions -- still offer adjuncts semi-regular bumps in pay related to changes in the cost of living or even years of service. 

Malini Cadambi Daniel, director for higher education at SEIU, called the Youngstown State situation “remarkable and sad.”

“I hope it's an outlier," she said. "I've not come across a story in our organizing that rivals this in terms of time.”

Maria Maisto, the Ohio-based president of the New Faculty Majority, a national adjunct advocacy organization, said she was familiar with the situation at Youngstown State, which may not be an outlier after all.

“Anecdotally, I can say that it's not uncommon, especially in places like Ohio,” she said, “where there are significant obstacles to unionizing and no interest or effort by colleges and universities to pay fair wages for work that is at the core of the mission.” 

Maisto noted that members of the House Committee on Education and the Workforce recently asked the Government Accountability Office to gather more information on adjuncts' working conditions, to paint a more complete national picture.

 

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Consensus forms on loan policies among conservative thinkers

Inside Higher Ed - 2 hours 56 min ago

For much of the new year, Jason Delisle has taken every available opportunity to argue against a return to the bank-based federal student loan system that existed before 2010.

On panels, in policy papers and in guest columns and op-eds, the American Enterprise Institute resident fellow has made the case that returning to a bank-based system from the current set-up where the government originates all federal student loans -- a plank of the GOP platform -- is misguided policy. 

“I’m [generally] inclined to believe that if the market is involved, the product will be better," Delisle says. "This was a case where that wasn’t true."

With Republicans controlling the White House and Congress for the first time in a decade, questions about how they will approach federal student aid, and how far they will veer from the path on loan policy staked out by Obama, are abundant.

Conversations with Delisle and other conservative policy analysts -- those seemingly likeliest to seed ideas for a party with renewed power -- suggest that the change might not be radical. Not surprisingly, they generally favor a bigger role for private capital in the student loan system, but they seem disinclined to undo the transformation wrought by the Obama administration. That's not because they love federal direct lending but because they don't think the previous bank-based system was truly market-driven either. Their other major goal -- simplifying the student financial aid system -- is shared by many across the political spectrum. 

The question is how to get there. And while denizens of the think tank world agree on some policy steps to reach those objectives, it’s not yet clear how effectively those ideas are reaching policy makers in the administration or Congress.

The Flaws in FFEL

Republican politicians, including President Trump, have argued for returning to lending done by private banks after more than half a decade in which student loans were made directly by the federal government. But there’s broad opposition to such a move on both the right and the left. 

Under the old system, the Federal Family Education Loan Program, banks made subsidized loans to student borrowers that were guaranteed by the federal government, with the rates set by Congress. Critics say the FFEL program was a giveaway to banks that didn’t improve loan performance or create any real competition among lenders.

“There’s this argument that it’s inserting private market competition, which it isn’t -- that’s not true,” said Alexander Holt, a policy analyst at New America’s Education Policy Program.

Just because market-oriented analysts don't want to blow up the direct loan program for undergraduates doesn't mean they're happy with the status quo. That the federal government originates more than 90 percent of student loans is a frequent lament on the right. But instead of a return to FFEL, they propose curtailing that government role by eliminating the Grad PLUS and Parent PLUS loan programs, two uncapped federal lending programs. 

Delisle is as vocal an opponent of the PLUS loan programs, which he says is “essentially crowding out the private market,” as he is of a return to bank-based student lending.

While the graduate loan program has high repayment and low default rates, Delisle and other PLUS opponents say, those students could get financing for graduate education from the private loan market. And they say the Parent PLUS loan saddles parents with loans they cannot repay. Headlines pulled from GAO reports about elderly borrowers having their Social Security benefits garnished to pay for loans have added fuel to calls for scrutinizing or eliminating the program outright. 

“We should roll back as much federal direct lending as possible,” said Lindsey Burke of the Heritage Foundation. “The path for doing that should start by eliminating the PLUS program altogether.” 

Groups like Heritage argue that the availability of government financing for higher education through programs like PLUS is actually driving increases in college tuition -- an example of the so-called Bennett hypothesis. Private lenders, Burke said, would also be able to differentiate interest rates depending on a student’s planned major or course of study if the law was changed to permit that. The U.S. could better keep student lending under control if private lenders could set the terms of a loan based on a students' educational achievements and plan of study for their next degree, they argue.

Conservative policy analysts are also agreed on the idea of simplifying the myriad choices for student loans and grants to something resembling a “one grant, one loan” approach.

There’s, again, some support on the right and the left for a simplifying the loan and grant options on offer to students. And prominent lawmakers like Tennessee Republican Lamar Alexander, the chairman of the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions committee, have in the past proposed legislation to streamline the number of those options. 

“There’s this big mess of information that basically makes it difficult for students to know what options are affordable to them,” said Beth Akers, a senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute. 

Simplifying the number of aid programs available to students would also make possible a more coherent conversation about the costs of subsidizing higher education, she said. The existing complex financial aid system is less transparent because of its complexity; having fewer channels of aid would make it easier to understand how much the government is spending and who the money is going to, Akers said.  

It's not only on the front end of the higher education process, when students apply for loans and grants to finance their education, that complexity has taken hold. To manage their student loan payments after leaving school student borrowers can also choose from an assortment of income-driven repayment plans, which grew in number under Obama.  

“There is a recognition that we’ve been adding and adding layer upon layer and it’s gone too far. So you’ve got to do something about that,” Holt said. 

And there is growing support for expanding the role of novel financial products like income-share agreements to fund students’ postsecondary education and training. In contrast with a student loan, ISAs would require that students pay back a percentage of their income over a set number of years. That would be a better deal than a loan for graduates who earn low incomes but would be costlier for those who end up earning higher than expected incomes.

That would be the easiest change for policy makers to pursue because it wouldn’t require an ambitious new federal program -- Congress could simplify clarify the law to make clear what would be allowed under such agreements. There is some momentum for campus-based ISA agreements already but policy analysts say adding more clarity would lead to more involvement from the private market. 

While the Republican dominance in the federal government -- the GOP holds majorities in both houses of Congress and the White House for the first time in a decade -- is unusual, there would likely be big hurdles to carrying out much of this policy agenda. 

Progressive policy groups, organizations advocating for student access and higher ed institutions themselves would oppose proposals to eliminate PLUS loans entirely, even if they would be open to reevaluating the programs. 

Justin Draeger, president and CEO of the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, said there’s an ideological assumption that the private loan market can better address the needs met by the PLUS loan programs now. But NASFAA and other advocacy groups argue that the PLUS loan programs provide subsidies to low-income and minority students to attend college and graduate programs who wouldn't otherwise. Removing those programs would cut out a critical source of financing for many students that wouldn't necessarily be filled by the private market, they say. 

“In a perfect world, I understand why that seems feasible. But we don’t live in a perfect world and the education space is an imperfect market,” Draeger said. “You’re just going to exacerbate inequality and achievement gaps.”

Draeger said NASFAA would be open to examining changes to PLUS, including assessing the ability of some parents to pay back loans. But seeking to eliminate the program entirely would unite a number of stakeholder groups in opposition, he said.

Graduate PLUS loans help offset the cost of other federal student loan programs, according to the Congressional Budget Office -- a finding that will provide ammunition to its defenders. Graduate borrowers are a better financial bet as they repay loans at a higher rate and default at a lower level. And under current Congressional budgeting rules, the Grad PLUS loans make money back for the federal government.

And recent attempts to modify how Parent PLUS loans are awarded have not fared well for federal policy makers. When the Department of Education under President Obama made it more difficult to take out Parent PLUS loans in 2011, the changes affected colleges of all sorts that serving large numbers of low-income students. But historically black colleges and universities were hit particularly hard by the changes and many leaders of those institutions were furious at the administration. The relationship between Obama and HBCUs never seemed to recover. 

Holt said the proposal may also draw opposition from the for-profit college industry, a sector that takes in a growing amount of revenue from federal federal aid attached to graduate enrollment. That could set up a clash between for-profits and lending companies that hope to play a bigger role in the graduate market, he said.

Progress on simplifying current student loan offerings could also run up against the reality that some aid programs that don’t appear significant in the aggregate can disproportionately benefit certain sectors or institutions, said Ben Miller,  senior director for postsecondary education at the Center for American Progress. 

“Simplification sounds awesome. Everybody wants it,” Miller said. “When you start to deal with money -- who it flows to and how much -- things get a lot more complicated.” 

Holt said while there’s broad consensus on simplification as a goal, there’s not much agreement on what that actually means. Delisle said that if policy makers are serious about the idea, they could set up an account-based system where students draw down a balance for loans or grants as they make progress toward their degree. 

There’s also acknowledgment in conservative policy circles that agreement between think tanks and policy shops might not amount to much on Capitol Hill.

“The question is: is that consensus meaningful at all?” Holt said. “Does it translate at all into what the GOP or the Trump administration would be listening to or thinking about?”

And unlike typical Republican administrations -- or even typical GOP candidates -- the current White House does not have deep ties to D.C. policy shops. Delisle, for example, served as an informal policy adviser on higher education for the Jeb Bush presidential campaign. Another former Republican presidential candidate, Florida Sen. Marco Rubio, has frequently consulted with organizations with Washington-based think tanks on higher education legislation. 

Trump had no such connections to organizations that study higher ed policy issues, either from government service, advocacy or from crafting campaign platforms. And since winning the Republican nomination, his team of education advisers was assembled basically on the fly. 

But even with an outsider president, Delisle said policy analysts like himself can definitely still make their case. 

“If anything, I think it’s easier,” he said. “Ten years ago, a blog was a pretty new thing. There’s more opportunities to get information out and do analysis and research and communicate it to folks.” 

And the dynamics on Capitol Hill have largely stayed the same, even if the objectives of the administration remain a mystery at this point. Alexander, Sen. Patty Murray of Washington, the HELP panel's senior Democrat, and Virginia Foxx, the chair of the House education committee, are known quantities for policy advocates. 

But Akers said Republicans for the past eight years have filled an opposition role, pushing back against policies that socialized higher education.

“My feeling is the GOP just did not anticipate being in a leadership position on any of these policy areas,” she said. “I think people are scrambling for ideas.”

Student Aid and LoansEditorial Tags: Loan programsFinancial aidImage Source: Getty ImagesIs this diversity newsletter?: Diversity Newsletter Order: 0

Q&A with author of book on rise of for-profits in a new economy

Inside Higher Ed - 2 hours 56 min ago

For at least the past 10 years, traditional colleges have been closely watching the rise and fall of the for-profit sector. 

Some experts point to minimal regulation, heavy recruitment and a lack of student knowledge about college choices to explain why the for-profit sector became so popular and saw a boom in student enrollment in the mid-2000's. Others point to the Obama administration's increased regulation and students' knowledge of the higher education system as reasons for the for-profit sector's decline. But in Tressie McMillan Cottom's new book, Lower Ed: The Troubling Rise of For-Profit Colleges in the New Economy (The New Press), she points to another factor -- credentialism. 

Tressie McMillan Cottom, who is assistant professor of sociology at Virginia Commonwealth University and is an active voice in the higher ed Twitter universe, formerly worked as a recruiter for two for-profit colleges. She responded to questions about the book and how the current economy could lead to a new, but troubling, era for for-profit education. 

Q: You connect for-profits with rising inequality. How does the sector benefit from inequality more so than the traditional or not-for-profit institutions? 

A: According to the sector itself, its business model relies almost entirely on there being more people who need a credential for work and mobility than there are opportunities for them to earn a credential or job training. Who can and cannot access that kind of path to mobility is a consequence of numerous inequalities: unequal access to high quality K-12 schools, wealth inequalities among families and communities, income inequalities between "good jobs" versus "bad jobs" and who has practical access to jobs that offer mobility without constant, expensive retraining. Because for-profit colleges are narrowly focused on job training, their business model is only practical if these inequalities continue. 

Q: You describe that part of this inequality is tied to the way our economy focuses on "risky" credentials. How has this made people vulnerable and has the completion agenda played a role in over credentialing and equity issues? 

A: Yes, the completion agenda has contributed to the ideology that we are all supposed to have a credential for quality work. But, the ideology predates the completion agenda. The completion agenda merely expands on an idea that is really a historical peculiarity, which is the idea individual workers should shoulder all the costs of job training. The employment sector (both public and private, by the way) leverages its market position in an economy with fairly high underemployment rates to tell workers that this is the case. To be competitive we are all told that we have to pursue and pay for credentials over our entire working careers. This is an especially pernicious risk shift from the employment sector to minority workers, who are already more likely to be unemployed and underemployed than are white workers. And, most minorities have less wealth than do white workers. The compounded effects are especially brutal for women of color who not only have negligible wealth but also care for extended networks on incomes that are, on average, less than that of white workers and all women workers.  For these reasons, the risk shift of job training, or credentialing, directly undermines equity agendas. I cannot see a way that any completion agenda that does not directly address how for-profit colleges have become the primary vehicle for higher education access among women of color can achieve any of its stated goals.

Q: For-profit advocates have argued that they have been the only institutions to offer a higher education to minority, low-income and non-traditional students. What options are there for this group of students, especially those who have been dissatisfied with the for-profit experience, but are left with debt and no degree?

A: They are correct. In the book, I am clear that for-profit colleges have a point about traditional not-for-profit higher education has not adjusted enough to accommodate non-traditional students. But, I am also clear that their take on that is disingenuous and cynical. Not-for-profit colleges aren't merely elitist. The institutions most likely to serve non-traditional students are also the most starved for political and economic capital. It is expensive to serve non-traditional students well, something for-profit colleges know is true. Our Catch-22 is that public money that supports public higher education flows instead to for-profit colleges, undermining not-for-profits ability to develop their capacity to serve non-traditional students. Then, those institutions are charged with being non-responsive. A new working paper by Stephanie Cellini, Rajeev Darolia, and Leslie J. Turner suggests that when for-profit colleges lose access to federal aid, those students instead go to community colleges. When they go, their resources go with them. By not admitting this, the for-profit college sector is being selective in its depiction of not-for-profit higher education.

But what are students' options? There are more flexible not-for-profit college options now than there were 20 years ago. To some extent, the rhetoric of the stodgy traditional not-for-profit college sector that won't change is outstripped by reality. Still, it is true that there aren't enough on-demand higher education options for all who would like them. However, I argue that this isn't a failure of higher education. It is a labor market failure and a social policy failure. Local workforce development, on-the-job-training, and union-sponsored education should have a more expansive role in job training. These are all better options for public investment than are for-profit colleges which provide negligible social benefits to the public and very poor individual returns to students. 

Q: One solution you point to is changing politics that weed out inequality. How do you see that happening given today's political climate and under a Trump presidency?

A: This is not a hopeful time for those of us who believe in a more fair social contract. All indications are that the Trump administration will either directly or indirectly support greater financialization of education, K-16. Among my colleagues in policy circles, there is a lot of discussion about how to position gains made during the Obama administration. That discussion is on-going.

I suspect the best hope is for external pressure from below, meaning local and state government as well as student and worker organizing. 
 

New Books About Higher EducationEditorial Tags: For-profit collegesImage Source: The New PressIs this diversity newsletter?: Diversity Newsletter Order: 0

Racial incidents upset students at several campuses

Inside Higher Ed - 2 hours 56 min ago

In the weeks after the election of President Trump, many campuses experienced racial and anti-immigrant incidents. While the incidents quieted at the end of last semester and the beginning of this one, a new flurry is hitting campuses now.

Numerous colleges -- including Hebrew Union College, the University of Florida, and the University of Minnesota -- have seen incidents involving swastikas in recent weeks. A neo-Nazi website has also been hacking into printers at prominent universities and printing out anti-Semitic fliers.

This week, Old Dominion University has been shaken by a video (designed to appear to be made by someone affiliated with the university) full of racist comments. Spring Arbor University is debating whether campus administrators should be revealing how they punished a woman who posed in blackface with racially offensive captions. And the University of Texas at Austin is planning a meeting after anti-immigrant posters appeared on campus.

When Inside Higher Ed reports on such incidents, some comments suggest that the incidents are "fake news." While some facts are indeed unclear about these incidents, they are all situations in which the universities have verified the basic facts, and many students have felt hurt or unwelcome because of what happened. In one case, a student has been found responsible. In another, a hate group has claimed responsibility.

A Video Spreads at Old Dominion

At Old Dominion, students were stunned when a video on YouTube circulated Monday night and Tuesday morning. It showed a woman (her head covered or obscured) first dancing in a university shirt and then in a "My President Is White" T-shirt featuring a Trump image. YouTube pulled the video for violating its standards, but not before many at the university viewed it. In the video, the woman uses racial slurs, encourages the killing of black people, holds what appears to be a gun at one point, and puts out a cigarette on a "Black Lives Matter" napkin. The person who posted the video indicated that she was an Old Dominion student, but neither the university nor authorities have figured out who she is.

Even after YouTube removed the video, snippets and photos have appeared all over social media.

The university and local police are investigating.

The university's president, John R. Broderick, and student government president, Rachael Edmonds, issued a joint statement. "This morning, the university community learned of an extremely offensive video circulating online that features a person wearing an Old Dominion University branded shirt. This is an outrageous act of hate and intolerance and we are sickened by this vile video. There is no place on this campus for hate and divisiveness," the statement said.

Blackface at Spring Arbor

At Spring Arbor University, in Michigan, students have been discussing social media posts showing a woman (at right) who the institution has confirmed is a student, in blackface, along with captions about cotton picking.

The university has confirmed that it has punished the student in some way, but will not say how it has done so. A full statement issued by an outside public relations firm said: "Spring Arbor University is committed to fostering a diverse learning environment that values the dignity of every human being. SAU takes seriously the nurturing of our Christian community so that all students regardless of their background are respected. The university is aware of a recent racially insensitive post on social media connected to an SAU student. This posting is upsetting and is not aligned with our core values. Due to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, we cannot comment about specific disciplinary actions. We do not condone this behavior. We take this matter seriously and are addressing this situation with the student."

On social media, some students are asking whether the punishment was serious and why more cannot be shared about the university's response.

Last month, Oklahoma State University had two incidents involving students posing in blackface in a single week.

Anti-Muslim Posters at UT Austin

At the University of Texas at Austin, President Gregory L. Fenves has announced a special town hall meeting today to discuss anti-immigrant posters that appeared on campus last week. The posters had tag lines such as "Imagine a Muslim-Free America."

A white supremacist group has claimed responsibility:

@UTAustin got a visit from the American Vanguard last night.#AmericanVanguard #MakeAmericaWhiteAgain pic.twitter.com/1I5iIhNaZq

— Vanguard Texas (@vanguard_texas) February 13, 2017

The university removed the posters quickly, noting rules that limit non-university affiliated groups from posting on campus.

In his statement to the campus, Fenves stressed that the university remains committed to free exchange of ideas, but within limits, such as on who can post where (regardless of the content).

"Last week, an organization unaffiliated with UT posted signs that directly targeted immigrants and minorities. The words and ideas contained within these posters were hateful, divisive and deeply offensive to me and to many members of our community. Their message runs counter to the values of our university and our commitment to diversity and inclusion," Fenves said. "The nation and world have seen an increase in emotional — and too often ugly and contentious — discussions about immigration, race, religion and gender-identity. The discourse has frequently been most vigorous on university campuses, where students, faculty members and staff members of diverse backgrounds come together in the pursuit of knowledge."

He added: "Free speech is critical to the exchange of ideas that must happen at a university. We don't learn by quieting voices. We learn by listening to one another and, when we disagree, by engaging in thoughtful dialogue. Protecting free speech means protecting the rights of every perspective, even if that perspective is objectionable. Sometimes, our collective dialogue has its limits, especially when it involves outside groups. Posters from non-UT organizations, including the ones we saw last week, are not allowed under our rules and will be taken down. They have no place on the Forty Acres. As a university community, it is up to all of us to define a culture that protects the right to free speech and supports our right to learn, teach and work in an inclusive environment."

In inviting students and others to the town hall, Fenves wrote: "The best response to offensive speech is enlightened dialogue."

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AP Program results show more students taking classes and succeeding

Inside Higher Ed - 2 hours 56 min ago

As access to Advanced Placement courses continues to grow, student success rates are also improving, according to the 2016 AP Program results for the class of 2016. 

“The Advanced Placement Program has radically expanded access without compromising quality,” said David Coleman, president and CEO of College Board, which oversees the AP Program. “I think it’s transformed from what was once an elite program for some to what’s an available program for all.”

The 2016 results, which came out today, show that since 2006, participation in the AP Program has nearly doubled, from 645,000 to 1.1 million students. During that same 10-year period, the portion of American public high school graduates who took and passed their AP exams -- earning a score of 3 or higher -- rose from 14.3 percent to 21.9 percent. The College Board said it did not have data on those who took the AP exams and did not achieve at least a 3.

At the state level, the highest performing students come from Massachusetts, Maryland and Connecticut, where AP exam success rates reach or exceed 30 percent. Meanwhile, the lowest achieving states include Mississippi (5.9 percent), Louisiana (7.8 percent) and North Dakota (9.6 percent). 

Coleman said that AP courses are reaching a broader, more diverse group of students than they ever have before. However, it's unclear how each racial and ethnic group performed on AP exams. Last year, the College Board adjusted its collection and reporting methods for data on race and ethnicity to better align with the U.S. Department of Education standards, which makes it difficult to compare data collected this year to that of previous years. Historically, African American and Hispanic students have scored lower on average on AP exams.

Trevor Packer, senior vice president of the AP Program, said that in the last 17 years, with the help of federal funding, the number of low-income students taking AP courses has increased ten-fold.

Last fall, the College Board also began offering a new AP course in computer science. During the current academic year, over 2,500 schools are signed up to offer the computer science class -- the largest launch in the history of the AP Program.

AdmissionsEditorial Tags: AdmissionsIs this diversity newsletter?: Diversity Newsletter Order: 0

Cómo elegir la universidad que más te conviene

Universia - Tue, 02/21/2017 - 23:00
Elegir el centro de estudios para tu formación profesional no es un trabajo fácil. Para ayudarte, te traemos algunas recomendaciones

Uno de los momentos más importantes para un universitario o pre universitario es la "búsqueda de la casa de estudios" donde se formará como profesional. Si estás por empezar tu búsqueda y no sabes por donde comenzar, sigue los consejos que te dejamos a continuación.

Si estás buscando dónde estudiar, accede al Portal de Estudios de Universia, donde encontrarás miles de oportunidades


Ante la variedad de ofertas educativas y carreras ofrecidas, muchos de los futuros estudiantes universitarios no saben qué institución elegir para cursar su carrera. Por tal motivo, algunos terminan optando por instituciones recomendadas por amigos o basan su decisión en los rankings sobre prestigio de las universidades. Sin embargo, esta forma de elección siempre es la mejor.

Elegir dónde vas a estudiar tu formación profesional es una decisión muy personal que debe responder no solo a tus inclinaciones y gustos, sino también a tus necesidades de formación y proyectos a futuro. Para elegir la universidad indicada para ti, te dejamos una lista de pasos a seguir para evaluar las diferentes opciones y hacer una correcta elección.

  • Elabora una lista de universidades: lo primero que debes hacer es elaborar una lista de las universidades que te interesan. Es posible que ya cuentes con algunas recomendaciones de amigos y familiares, pero para ampliar las posibilidades, investiga sobre las universidades de acuerdo a la profesión que quieras realizar y tus posibilidades de concurrir a la institución tomando en cuenta la distancias y si debes mudarte o no.
  • Requisitos de ingreso y costos: una vez que tengas tu listado de universidades favoritas, comienza a organizarlas de acuerdo a un criterio de posibilidades de ingreso y costos de las carreras. Quizás algunas de las instituciones que estés considerando tengan procesos de admisión muy complejos o no puedas pagarlas debido a su elevado coste. Organiza tu listado de acuerdo a este criterio e investiga sobre las pruebas de admisión y las becas que otorga cada institución.
  • Aprende sobre los programas y docentes: este es un paso que muchos estudiantes se saltean y es esencial para que elijas la universidad indicada. Los programas y sus enfoques varían en cada institución, por eso te conviene saber antes qué tipo de metodologías utilizan, si el enfoque es teórico o práctico, etc. Por otro lado, el equipo docente también es fundamental, por lo que te conviene saber quiénes son los docentes que imparten clases en tu carrera, sus referencias, su experiencia y el enfoque que dan a cada asignatura.
  • Visita la universidad: la mejor forma de conocer un centro educativo, sus estudiantes y su dinámica es visitando personalmente el lugar. Intenta participar en una visita guiada y averigua qué posibilidades tienes de hacer un recorrido por ti mismo, hablar con los estudiantes, conocer el edificio y el ambiente del lugar. Si por un tema de distancias esto te resulta imposible, averigua con ex estudiantes y egresados cómo es la institución y qué puedes esperar de ella.
  • Nivel de prestigio: el prestigio de la institución es para muchos un determinante en su decisión. Si todavía no tienes claro cuál será tu elección, comienza a investigar sobre el nivel de prestigio nacional e internacional de las instituciones que te interesan y sobre todo, de las titulaciones que quieres cursar. Estudiar en un lugar bien considerado puede ser una forma de abrir puertas a mejores ofertas laborales.
  • Programas de prácticas profesionales e intercambio: para complementar tu formación de la mejor manera, las prácticas profesionales y los programas de intercambio son una excelente herramienta para adquirir nuevos conocimientos y experiencia. Consulta en las universidades de tu interés si tienen programas formados sobre estos temas, de esta forma podrás aprovechar al máximo la posibilidad de enriquecer tu proceso de formación.


Una vez hayas terminado con el proceso de selección, lo siguiente es hacer una lista definitiva de las universidades a las que quieres asistir y solicitar la admisión. Hay algunas instituciones con acceso más difícil que otras, por lo que puedes postularte para el ingreso de más de una universidad para aumentar tus posibilidades. Una vez que seas aceptado por la institución a la que te postulaste, ya estás listo para ingresar, comenzar a estudiar y convertirte en un excelente profesional.

 

UDLAP: Expandiendo los límites a través del XXVIII Congreso Nacional de Actuaría

Universia - Tue, 02/21/2017 - 17:00
El Vigésimo Octavo Congreso Nacional de Actuaría: Expande tus Límites se celebrará del 15 al 17 de marzo en Santa Catarina Mártir Cholula en Puebla.

Del 15 al 17 de marzo del presente, se llevará a cabo en Santa Catarina Mártir Cholula en Puebla, el Vigésimo Octavo Congreso Nacional de Actuaría: Expande tus Límites. Será entonces la UDLAP el anfitrión de un gran número de estudiantes y profesionales que colaboran en la generación de líderes en materias actuariales.

Conservándose entre las mejores universidades a nivel Latinoamérica, la Universidad de las Américas Puebla en conjunto con el Departamento de Actuaría, Física y Matemáticas y la Mesa Directiva de Actuaría, han llevado a cabo el Congreso Nacional por 27 veces consecutivas. El evento es de índole académica, buscando siempre un encuentro óptimo entre estudiantes y profesionales de alta calidad.

Es por eso que este año se busca el “EXPANDIR LOS LÍMITES”; crear nuevos horizontes basados en conocer la experiencia de personas que han sobresalido en el entorno competitivo global. Los ámbitos relacionados con la Actuaría son bastante amplios y beneficiosos para la sociedad, involucrando temas de probabilidad, estadística, matemáticas, finanzas y economía. Por consiguiente, más que ser un ambiente multidisciplinario, es una búsqueda por innovar y generar impactos positivos a través del ejemplo de tales personalidades.

Se contará con la presencia del Act. Carlos Lozano Nathal (Presidente del Colegio Nacional de Actuarios), Act. Francisco Orduña (Fellow de Society of Actuaries), Dr. Víctor Guerrero (Director del International Institute of Forecasters), Dr. Luis Ernesto Derbéz (Rector de la UDLAP), entre otros ponentes notables; mismos que harán de este evento el más grande de su ramo a nivel estudiantil.

El sitio WEB del evento es www.udlap.mx/congresoactuaria , donde se encontrarán a detalle los eventos y las actividades realizadas para esas fechas. La entrada para gente proveniente de universidades fuera de Puebla, el evento mantendrá su costo de pre-venta ($650.00) en todo momento. En otro caso, el costo de pre-venta es exclusivo hasta el miércoles 8 de marzo.

Acá un pequeño video del evento.

Germany and Kenya to establish university of applied sciences

The PIE News - Tue, 02/21/2017 - 10:52

A binational university of applied sciences is set to be established in Kenya as a joint project with Germany, it has been announced, in order to help upskill the Kenyan workforce to meet the demands of the economy.

The Eastern African-German University of Applied Sciences is expected to serve as a model of a university of applied sciences which is closely connected with industry, to strengthen the ties between education and business.

The institution, which is projected to have a capacity of between 4,000 and 5,000 students within ten years of opening, will specialise in teaching in the subjects of mechanical, electrical and civil engineering.

It will also teach entrepreneurship, and provide TVET teacher training.

“Kenya is developing into a regional economic and technological hub”

A declaration of intent to establish the Eastern African-German University of Applied Sciences was signed at the German-African Business Summit this month in Nairobi by Jutta Frasch, the German ambassador to Kenya, and Fred Matiang’i, the Kenyan Minister of Education.

The details of funding this institution are still under review, but an intergovernmental agreement on the financial aspects is in the pipeline.

The financial contribution from the German side, however, will be focused on the curricula development, teacher training and training of research staff, as well as the deployment of German lecturers and administrators to work with their Kenyan counterparts, according to Helmut Blumbach, DAAD regional director, Nairobi.

“The idea is not to build a new university from scratch but to stage an open competition among existing Kenyan universities which would like to remodel their programmes along the principles of a university of applied sciences,” he told The PIE News.

It is also expected to cater to both businesses and students from across the East African region, Blumbach added.

Many education stakeholders in Kenya view the German universities of applied sciences “as a model for practice-oriented academic training offering qualifications relevant to the labour market”, commented Blumbach.

“The country’s academic and higher education sector are experiencing rapid growth”

And there was already interest from universities of applied sciences in Germany to participate in a collaborative project with Kenya.

“With its growing industries, improving infrastructure, creativity in ICT development and thousands of business start-ups, Kenya is developing into a regional economic and technological hub,” said Blumbach.

“It is therefore an ideal environment to create a model of a technical university which is closely linked and adapted to the needs of the booming economy.”

This project will help further cooperation between Germany and Kenya, said Margret Wintermantel, president of DAAD.

“The country’s academic and higher education sector are experiencing rapid growth, the economy and diverse industrial branches are booming, there’s a vibrant entrepreneurial scene of medium-sized companies,” she said.

“I am delighted that, with this new project, we can further intensify our cooperation with Kenya and the region of Eastern Africa.”

The post Germany and Kenya to establish university of applied sciences appeared first on The PIE News.

UK’s Right to Rent checks affecting int’l students

The PIE News - Tue, 02/21/2017 - 05:16

Fears that legislation mandating that landlords check tenants’ right to rent in England may deter some landlords from letting to foreign nationals – including international students – appear to have been realised, as two national surveys suggest some landlords are doing just that.

In a survey of 108 landlords by the Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants, half (51%) said that the Right to Rent scheme has made them less likely to consider renting to foreign nationals.

And in a second survey of 57 student landlords in England by StudentTenant.com, nearly a quarter (23%) said they would be less likely to rent to an international student now than before the checks were introduced.

Under legislation that came into force in February 2016, landlords can face a fine of up to £3,000 or jail time if they fail to verify that prospective tenants are legally allowed to live in the UK.

They must do this by asking tenants to produce an eligible passport, birth certificate, immigration documents or a biometric data card.

“There is no evidence that it is doing anything to tackle irregular immigration”

But StudentTenant.com’s survey suggests this some landlords are being over-cautious, as more than three-quarters of those surveyed (76%) said they would not consider a tenant who was unable to immediately produce this documentation immediately.

The survey also revealed that landlords are divided as to whether or not they believe the changes help to identify people who are in the UK illegally.

Close to half (47%) said they don’t think the tenant checks will have a “genuine impact on filtering out illegal immigrants”, while just over a third (36%) believe there will be an impact.

Alarmingly, although the majority of landlords surveyed said they were aware of the Right to Rent changes, 16% said they were not. A further 2% were unsure whether or not they had known about the changes.

“When the new Right to Rent regulations were introduced there was uproar amongst the landlord community, because of the supposedly unfair burden placed on them in relation to enforcing immigration laws,” commented Danielle Cullen, managing director at StudentTenant.com.

“I have to say that the apparent ineffective implementation of the regulations so far seems to have warranted that uproar, particularly given the adverse effects on the international community legally residing within the UK.”

The UK Council for International Student Affairs was among the organisations that warned the Right to Rent scheme could make life difficult for international students. Before the nationwide rollout, its chief executive, Dominic Scott, said the scheme entailed a “clear risk of discrimination”.

However, Scott said the association has not received many reports of international students being affected by the policy so far.

“We have been surprised that we have not had more reports of difficulties for international students as we warned at an early stage that they would face problems,” he told The PIE News.

This may be because managed student accommodation (such as that belonging to universities) is exempt from the policy, he said, but added: “Clearly many of those using the private sector are facing what looks like direct or indirect discrimination.”

The JCWI study appears to highlight broader issues with the scheme and landlords’ response.

Forty-two per cent of landlords said they would be less likely to rent to someone without a British passport as a result of the Right to Rent regulations. This rose to 48% when survey participants were explicitly asked to consider the sanctions they might face for violating the regulations.

This is despite the fact that a British passport is only one of the documents that would provide assurance that a tenant is legally allowed to live in England.

As well as the 51% of respondents who said they would be less likely to rent to a foreign national from outside the EU, 18% said they would be less likely to rent to European nationals as a result of the scheme.

Saira Grant, chief executive of JCWI, said the study demonstrates the Right to Rent scheme is “failing on all fronts”.

“It treats many groups who need housing unfairly, it is clearly discriminatory, it is putting landlords in an impossible position, and there is no evidence that it is doing anything to tackle irregular immigration,” she said.

The post UK’s Right to Rent checks affecting int’l students appeared first on The PIE News.

Twenty-Five Institutions to Participate in ACE Alternative Credit Project

American Council on Education - Tue, 02/21/2017 - 03:01
ACE announced today that 25 colleges and universities are joining an alternative credit consortium as part of an innovative initiative to create a more flexible pathway toward a college degree for millions of nontraditional learners.

Call for papers IAU Horizons

International Association of Universities - Tue, 02/21/2017 - 02:57

The theme of the In Focus Section of the upcoming issue of the magazine is: Corruption in higher education.
* Deadline for abstracts: 20 March (50 words)
* Full papers : 20 April (800 words max)
* Publication: May 2017

Contact: Dr. Hilligje van 't Land, the Editor.

Michigan State will ban whiteboards from dormitory doors

Inside Higher Ed - Tue, 02/21/2017 - 02:34

The dormitory room door whiteboard, long a form of communication among students, will not be permitted after this semester at Michigan State University.

Officials told local reporters that the whiteboards have become a tool for bullying, some of it racist or sexist.

“In any given month, there are several incidents like this. There was no one incident that was the straw that broke the camel’s back,” Kat Cooper, director of university residential services communications, told The Detroit News. “Sometimes these things are racial, sometimes they’re sexual in nature. There are all sorts of things that happen.”

Cooper also said that whiteboards are no longer as central to student life as some may remember. “I know that when I was in school, whiteboards were an essential form of communication with other students,” Cooper told the News. “It used to be that their (appropriate) usage outweighed their abuse, and that’s just not the case anymore.”

While Cooper also said that there was no one incident that prompted the change, on the Facebook page of the Lansing NAACP, a posting noted a recent incident and suggested a connection to the ban.

The post said:"We had an incident at MSU where a young African-American honors student had 'The N Word' written on her dorm room whiteboard. It's been a while but MSU Police have informed us that ALL dormatory white boards will be removed asap. Victory!!!"

Michigan State officials told various media outlets that the ban would not be in place until next semester as current contracts with dormitory residents do not include provisions on whiteboards on doors. The whiteboards will still be permitted inside rooms.

Of the many incidents of bigotry being reported on campuses these days, a number do involve dormitory room whiteboards, where many campuses have seen incidents reported of someone writing racial slurs or swastikas or other offensive things. Of course many of these whiteboards have basic innocuous things written on them such as "studying in the library."

On social media, students and others were criticizing the ban, saying that it would not eliminate racist or sexist bullying, but would deny students a form of communication.

On the Lansing NAACP website, one person commented, "If someone writes on the door, will they remove everyone's dorm room door?" Another wrote, "How is this a victory when every dorm resident will be punished because of one racist idiot? What does this accomplish exactly? It seems to me you're giving more power to the racist. Should we have limited skyscrapers to only 10 stories after 9/11 in an effort to end terrorism? Help me to understand the reasoning and logic."

 

 

 

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Liberal arts students' fears about the job market upon graduation are increasingly informing what they choose to study, even as electives

Inside Higher Ed - Tue, 02/21/2017 - 01:00

Liberal arts colleges promise students a well-rounded education in core disciplines that will prepare them for a variety of careers and lifelong learning — not just a first job. Increasingly, though, even attending a liberal arts institution doesn’t inoculate students from anxieties about the job market that may push them toward the math and the sciences, at the expense of arts and humanities. 

“What liberal arts colleges historically have said to students is, ‘Do what you love, and the rest will take care of itself,'” said Sarah Bolton, president of the College of Wooster. Increasingly, though, that message isn’t resonating with students, who instead think they’ll be best served later on by taking as many quantitative courses as possible — including as electives, she said. So it’s statistics instead of theater, for example, or another science course over one in literature.

As a physicist, Bolton doesn’t object to more science — until it compromises a student’s overall experience. “I firmly believe that the sciences are part of the liberal arts, but I also believe that the arts are part of the liberal arts, as well,” she said.

Bolton said the challenge for colleges like hers going forward will be to encourage students to make the most of the curriculum based on what they want to do when they graduate, while not limiting themselves or sacrificing what they really want to study. Wooster is currently reviewing its curricular requirements to encourage students to do just that. It’s also gathering long-term data on enrollment and major choices. There’s already anecdotal evidence to suggest that some students are skimping on the arts and humanities courses they came to liberal arts institution to try out. 

At Wellesley College, that’s definitely the case. The college surveyed recent graduates and asked which of the 12 degree components they wished they’d taken more or less of. About half of respondents said they wouldn’t change anything. But about half said they would, with the most “wish I’d taken more” comments relating to the arts, languages and non-Western cultures. The most “wish I’d taken fewer” comments were about courses in math and the physical sciences. 

“I wouldn’t say it was students’ biggest regret, but when they looked at their academic programs, they wished they had done more arts and humanities,” said Ann Velenchik, dean of academic affairs at Wellesley and an associate professor of economics. 

Between 2008 and 2016, for example, there was a 14 percent decline in enrollments in the humanities and an 8 percent decline in enrollments in the social sciences. At the same time, there was a 29 percent increase in enrollments in math and the sciences, especially computer science and neuroscience. Interdisciplinary courses are also on the rise, with an 18 percent jump in enrollments.

In terms of majors, 27 percent of Wellesley graduates majored in the arts and humanities in 2008. In 2016, it was 23 percent. Social sciences, historically Wellesley’s most popular area, saw a smaller decline, from 44 percent 42 percent. Majors in math and the sciences jumped, meanwhile, from 18 percent to 23 percent. 

“There’s definitely been a movement from the humanities to the sciences,” Velenchik said. Yet she noted that enrollments in particular are more “balanced” than they used to be — meaning that they’re more evenly represented now across the arts and sciences.  

Is that good or bad? Velenchik was somewhat neutral, saying that at Wellesley, at least, students tend to “overfulfill” their distribution requirements, regardless of major. Those requirements include three courses in the humanities, three in the social sciences, three in math and the physical sciences, two years of a foreign language and a first-year writing course. 

William Deresiewicz, author of Excellent Sheep: The Miseducation of the American Elite and the Way to a Meaningful Life and current National Endowment for the Humanities-Hannah Arendt Center Visiting Distinguished Fellow at Bard College, was less neutral about national trends away from the humanities. 

“It's a terrible thing, and it bespeaks the destructive attitude that is ubiquitous in education today, which is that the sole purpose of education is to set you up for job and career and that you should therefore study something practical, understood in the narrowest terms,” he said.

Deresiewicz said he’s studied major — not enrollment — data at top-20 colleges and universities, as ranked by U.S. News & World Report, and noticed an “enormous shift” toward economics, even more so at liberal arts colleges than at research institutions. In 1995, for example, English was the most popular major at 9 of the top 20 liberal arts colleges, compared to just one in 2013. Economics and the other social sciences — namely political science — surged from the most popular majors at four colleges to 13 over the same period.

Because liberal arts institutions usually don’t offer the kinds of “explicitly vocational majors that most schools do (communications, education, business — the last of which accounts for between a fifth and a quarter of all majors across the country), students at fancy schools tend to choose one of the next best things: biology, engineering, computer science, and for those not inclined to the sciences, economics,” Deresiewicz added via email.

What Can Be Done? 

Part of Bolton’s thinking is informed by having served as dean until recently at Williams College. That campus has seen a decline the number of majors in a few humanities and arts fields — namely studio art and art history. But that's been coupled with a sharp increase in the number of students who choose to double major (currently 42 percent of students), with at least one major in the sciences, technology, math or engineering (STEM), according to information from Williams. So even as the sciences have surged, the net impact on the humanities has been minimal. 

Beyond encouraging students to double-major, George Shuffleton, associate dean and professor of English at Carleton College, advised talking to students about what they want to learn. “We work really hard to dispel the notion” that students have to fine-tune their studies to particular career aspiration, he said. “Students  come to a place like Carleton because they really are committed to getting a liberal arts education, and sometimes it’s a question of reminding them that if they’d wanted to pursue a narrowly professional education, there are other places they could have gone to instead. The mission is reminding them why they made that choice in the first place.” 

Carleton has seen slight declines in some non-physical science fields within the last decade. English accounted for 9 percent of majors in 2006, for example, compared to 6 percent in 2016; social sciences and history shrank from 31 percent to 26 percent of majors over the same period. But surges in STEM fields were centralized, seen in just math and computer science (the latter was 2 percent of majors in 2006, and now it's about 10 percent). 

To that point, Shuffleton said there was probably a something a bit more nuanced going on than a much-lamented decline of the humanities: gender. At Carleton and nationwide, more women are enrolling in disciplines in which they've historically been underrepresented, he said. “In fields like math and computer science, we see that as a success.”

Velenchik, at Wellesley, said trends toward the sciences probably also reflect her institution’s efforts to enroll more first-generation students — many of whom have a different, perhaps more practical idea of what college is and should accomplish than do students whose parents and grandparents attended liberal arts institutions. 

Silvia L. López, David and Marian Adams Bryn-Jones Distinguished Teaching Professor of the Humanities and director of the Humanities Center at Carleton, said via email that numbers alone don’t do the conversation justice. “Our curriculum design requires students to learn a second language and ensures that the students take classes distributed in all areas of knowledge and artistic practice offered,” she said, while about 75 percent of students go abroad. “Carleton's liberal arts education is exactly that: an education. It can't be measured by the number of majors in the hard sciences, but must be understood through the transformative experiences that students have in and out of the classroom that teach them that a rich and full life can only be one if lived in an examined and generous way.”

It’s true that many liberal arts colleges have distribution requirements that ensure students are learning within a variety of disciplines, regardless of their majors. Some colleges have also layered thematic requirements on disciplinary requirements. Barnard College, for example, this year debuted new curriculum called “Foundations,” which promoted six “modes of thinking” — technologically and digitally; quantitatively and empirically; social difference; global inquiry; locally (New York); and historical perspective — in addition to requirements in the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences. (Computer science enrollments and majors are up significantly at Barnard.)

Extracurricular opportunities — typically plentiful on liberal arts campuses — only enrich those studies. Some campuses also have added courses, majors and programs that ensure students are studying the liberal arts even when they’re not taking courses within the traditional liberal arts disciplines.

Carol Quillen, president of Davidson College, said her campus has moved increasingly toward problem-centered learning in recent years, such as by adding programs like digital studies. The minor emphasizes digital creativity, culture and methodology through coursework in design, ethics, quantitative literacy and other elements of the liberal arts. Health and human values is another popular program. 

“These are the kinds of questions that are inspiring faculty and students, and our curriculum is becoming and less departmentally focused,” she said. “We’re thinking about a liberal arts curriculum that looks much more transdisciplinary and pulls courses and faculty members from across the disciplines together.”

Liberal arts colleges, with their typically small faculties, are uniquely suited for collaboration and being nimble to students’ needs and interests, Quillen said. She noted that a group of faculty members had responded to waning interest in a four-semester Western traditions humanities sequence by cutting the time commitment and adding a global focus, for example. 

Surely such updates will draw criticism from those who advocate for a traditional liberal arts core, and who blame any decline of the humanities on new, more critical approaches. But Quillen said she had no patience for arguments that change inevitably waters down the liberal arts, and suggested that the key to maintaining educational quality is rigor, not stasis. 

The notion that adding Zora Neale Hurston, for example, to a course in Western literature — which traditionally would have been dominated by white male authors — somehow means sacrificing rigor “is ridiculous,” she added. “Plus we live in a world where fields of inquiry are constantly expanding.”

Carleton isn’t the only college adding new programs. Williams, for instance, has added a concentration in public health and new majors in Arabic, environmental studies and statistics in the past decade.

The Association of American Colleges and Universities, which promotes liberal education, advocates inquiry-based, integrative learning and high-impact teaching practices over core curricula and stringent distribution requirements, “where students’ proficiencies are practiced and demonstrated across all learning experiences,” said Lynn Pasquerella, president. 

General education now also requires “signature work,” in which students “integrate and apply their learning to questions that matter, she said. “Signature work prepares students to grapple with complex, unscripted problems for which the answers are yet unknown and to use strategies of inquiry, analysis and collaboration to construct a course of action and take responsibility for the results.”

Over all, the association’s vision for ged ed “is grounded in guided preparation for students to identify and build capacity for addressing significant questions and challenges that matter to the student and to the broader society,” Pasquerella said. Disciplinary work “remains foundational, but students are provided with practice connecting their discipline with others, with the co-curriculum, and with the needs of society — in preparation for work, citizenship and life.”

Teaching and LearningEditorial Tags: Liberal arts collegesIs this diversity newsletter?: Diversity Newsletter Order: 0

Financial insecurity could keep some community college students from completing

Inside Higher Ed - Tue, 02/21/2017 - 01:00

Food, housing and other forms of financial insecurity are a major reason behind students’ inability to complete community college.

A new report from the Center for Community College Student Engagement released during the 2017 Achieving the Dream conference today revealed that nearly half of community college students reported that a lack of finances could cause them to withdraw from their institutions.

“We can have all kinds of academic supports in place, but if we don’t come alongside them in this way also and help support them … it won’t matter how much else we do to prop them,” said Evelyn Waiwaiole, director of the center.

The annual CCCSE report surveyed nearly 100,000 community college students from 177 institutions and found nearly 4 in 10 receive federal Pell Grants. National data showed that nearly 61 percent of Pell recipients live below the poverty line. And of those who reported receiving Pell Grants, 40 percent say they rely on student loans, which may not be needed for tuition, to make ends meet.

Many of the students surveyed revealed they are living paycheck to paycheck, especially if they have dependent children.

The report also found:

  • Six in 10 students reported they would have trouble getting $500 in cash or credit in order to meet an unexpected need within the next month.
  • Those students receiving Pell Grants are more likely that those who don’t to aspire to an associate degree than a bachelor’s degree.
  • Nine out of 10 surveyed students said they need information about financial assistance.
  • Twenty-seven percent said the financial information they received from their college was inadequate.
  • More than three-quarters of students report that they have the skills to manage their own finances, however, more than half report struggling to keep up with bills.

“This doesn’t look surprising given what we know about current trends in higher education,” said Katharine Broton, a researcher at the Wisconsin HOPE Lab and doctoral candidate in sociology at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. “This comes to the larger issue of college affordability … what we call the purchasing power of need-based financial aid has fall.”

The HOPE Lab is working with the Association of Community College Trustees to measure food and housing security in 75 community colleges.

In the 1970's, the typical Pell Grant covered the total cost of attendance, including tuition and living expenses, at community colleges across the country, Broton said, but that’s no longer the case as students are forced to find money elsewhere or cut back on expenses.

“Another part of this is that we know college students have limited access to the publicly-funded safety net,” she said. “They have to fit the criteria to be eligible for [food benefits] … finances are so tight for students we see them sacrificing adequate food or shelter while pursuing goals.”

The CCCSE study also revealed that 30 percent of students choose to stay enrolled in college in order to receive the financial aid.

“We have a lot of conversations that students are just trying to get the financial aid paycheck,” Waiwaiole said. “We talk about that as if it’s a terrible thing.”

If students have that high of need that they’re staying enrolled to receive the money, they must really need it, she said.

“There’s also a lot of embarrassment,” Waiwaiole said. “No one wants to say, ‘I’m needy.’ It’s a delicate conversation. It’s one that as institutions we need to identify these students and how do we come alongside them and help them to where a stigma is not associated with it.”

But many of these students reported that despite struggling to make ends meet, they can manage their own finances.

Waiwaiole said institutions have to be cognizant of how complex and “murky” the issue can be for students.

Broton said there are some things colleges can do in the short-term to help students who are struggling financially like by using emergency grant aid.

“That’s making a big difference in the lives of students, but it’s a short-term fix,” she said. “We need to be thinking about the total cost of attendance, not just tuition and fees. There’s been a lot of awareness and evidence that tuition and fees have been rising over time, but we need to be increasing awareness that the cost of living, transportation, child care costs and other things have been rising significantly over time as well and that’s a large share of the cost of college.”

 

Community CollegesEditorial Tags: Community collegesImage Caption: Amarillo College food pantry in TexasIs this diversity newsletter?: Diversity Newsletter Order: 0

Q&A with the author of new book on 'how to fix' college sports

Inside Higher Ed - Tue, 02/21/2017 - 01:00

The National Collegiate Athletic Association has "placed commercial success above its responsibilities to protect the academic development, health and well-being of college athletes," a new book argues, and has let college sports fall into an "educational, ethical and economic crisis." The book, Unwinding Madness: What Went Wrong with College Sports and How to Fix It (Brookings Institution Press) was written by three college sports reformers -- Gerald Gurney, Donna Lopiano and Andrew Zimbalist -- who propose several ways to "fix" college sports, while arguing that the NCAA may not be up to the task.

Zimbalist, a sports economist and professor at Smith College, responded to questions about the book and the state of college athletics.

Q: The subtitle of this book is "what went wrong with college sports and how to fix it," so let's start with that question. What went wrong with college sports?

A: In a few words, college sports today is: One, financially unsustainable for all but a handful of schools. Two, materially exploitative of the leading athletes in high-profile sports, most of whom happen to be African-Americans. Three, ethically bankrupt. Four, deleterious to the educational process. And five, legally under assault. There will be significant change. The question is whether the system moves further toward a complete embrace of market forces and commercialism or toward a recommitment to its educational origins.

Q: You and your co-authors discuss how college sports has, in some ways, always been a commercial enterprise. The first college sports contest, a rowing match between Harvard and Yale, was organized by a railroad company. Is the current state of big-time college sports just the logical progression of how things began?

A: The commercialization of college sports is an evolutionary story, beginning in 1852 [when Harvard and Yale competed in their first rowing match] and proceeding step by step to where it is 2017. There were, however, a few key events along the way that were decisive in moving the NCAA toward the sharpening plutocracy that it is today.

Q: What would you say some of those key events were?

A: One of those events was the 1984 Supreme Court decision that declared the NCAA’s television monopoly over college football constituted an illegal restraint of trade. The result was that universities and conferences were free to set their own television contracts. This, in turn, led conferences to re-align away from their historically-driven geographical and educational affinities and toward a revenue-maximizing strategy to cover as many households across the country as possible. The upshot was growing inequality across conferences and schools, heightened incentives to build winning teams, and decreased attention to the professed educational goals of universities.

Q: As noted in the book, the NCAA moved to a model of presidential control two decades ago. You argue that this has had little to no effect in slowing the arms race in Division I's men's basketball and football and in improving the related issues. Why hasn't this worked? 

A: The “presidential control” model was promoted as a reassertion of the primacy of education over athletics. In fact, the 1996 reform promoted unbridled commercialization and, if anything, diminished the role of presidents in controlling college sports. Arguably, the notion of presidential control was put forward as a smoke screen for the real purpose of the reform which was to free up Division I to follow the mandate of commercialization. The 1996 reform ended the association-wide “one school/one vote” model in favor of divisional autonomy. Within Division I, the former subdivision IA (now the Football Bowl Subdivision) was given operational control and, eventually, within FBS, the Power Conferences came to dominate decision-making.

University presidents have always had the ability to control the NCAA. They have never chosen to exercise it. Presidents have a great deal on their plates -- fund raising, physical plant, alumnae relations, town-gown relations, building a strong faculty and staff, attracting and retaining worthy students -- before taking on the contradictions of college sports. Those presidents who have raised their voices about the urgent need to reform intercollegiate athletics have been criticized and not reappointed by their governing boards, and, moreover, they have had no lasting success.

Thus, with few exceptions, college presidents have abdicated athletic reform and have left sports governance to the athletic director and the coaches. The NCAA, in turn, has come to function as a trade association of the athletic directors, coaches and conference commissioners. The 1996 model of divisional autonomy has only reinforced this pattern.

Q: How does this get fixed?

A: There are a variety of conceivable fixes for college sports. The specific one we endorse in Unwinding Madness is for Congress to give the NCAA a conditional and limited antitrust exemption. This exemption would allow the NCAA to pass certain desirable policies, such as imposing limits on coaches’ salaries, who today are paid for the value produced by the players they recruit -- money the players are not allowed to receive. It would also allow the NCAA to impost limits on the length of season, the days of competition and the number of scholarships, without fear of antitrust prosecution. The NCAA would only receive this antitrust immunity if it met new standards of educational integrity and rigor, as well as new conditions to maintain athlete welfare.

Recognizing the complexity of the issues and political entanglements, however, [the book's authors] also support a bill introduced by Representative Charlie Dent, a Republican from Pennsylvania, during the last Congress, that calls for the creation of a presidential commission to study the problems of intercollegiate athletics and to propose remedies.

Q: Creating a presidential commission was an idea that found some traction in the past couple of years. Do you have a sense of whether the momentum has changed with a new White House and Congress?

A: Charlie Dent intends to reintroduce his bill in the new congress. He has more supporters in the House than he did last year. We have spoken to some senators who also show a keen interest. I think at the moment people in DC are overwhelmed by the manifold issues surrounding the Trump transition, so that it will take a while for the dust to settle and legislation attention to less urgent matters rekindles.

New Books About Higher EducationEditorial Tags: AthleticsNCAAIs this diversity newsletter?: Diversity Newsletter Order: 0

International educators grapple with changed political and social landscape

Inside Higher Ed - Tue, 02/21/2017 - 01:00

WASHINGTON -- Attendees gathered here for the annual meeting of the Association of International Education Administrators annual conference grappled Monday with what Susan Buck Sutton, a senior advisor for international initiatives at Bryn Mawr College, described as a “chaotic mix of beliefs that challenge the work of international educators.” Those beliefs, she said in introducing a roundtable discussion on the U.S. presidential election results, “have entered into widespread discussion and politicized in new ways the work that we do.”

The beliefs she was referring to include the blaming of globalization for the loss of jobs, outright racism and xenophobia, and the singling out of China, Mexico, and Muslim-majority nations as problematic. Other beliefs include the idea that international relations is a “zero-sum game” with winners and losers and the conviction that an “inevitable violent clash of civilizations is headed our way.” Sutton mentioned as well an antipathy toward a broad category of “elites” – a group of “strange bedfellows” as she described them, which lumps together everyone from Wall Street financiers to academics and journalists, among others – and narrow ideas of who “real,” or “true,” Americans are.

The election of Donald Trump, and the anti-globalist, “America First” sentiment he rode to victory, has presented a broad challenge to American higher education and some of its key values like internationalism and multiculturalism. That challenge became more acute after Trump signed an executive order Jan. 27 barring entry into the U.S. by refugees and nationals of seven Muslim-majority countries. Enforcement of the entry ban has since been halted by federal judges, but the Trump administration has indicated it will issue a new order -- which the president has justified on the grounds of keeping terrorists out of the U.S. -- at some point this week. 

International educators in attendance for the packed roundtable discussion on Monday described a need for wider engagement with the public. At the same time, one attendee noted that universities shouldn't assume that "we don’t have significant numbers of Trump supporters in our student populations -- and what about them too?"

Other themes discussed included the impact of the election and visa policies on current international students -- an administrator reported that his students are feeling afraid -- and on future, would-be ones. 

“My university, we lose our international students, it becomes an existential issue," said one attendee.

Immediately after the presidential election AIEA put out a statement encouraging “international educators to stay abreast of developments that impact international education, to advocate for policies that support the education and preparation of students to live in our interdependent society, and to engage in positive, ethical, and respectful discussion and debate with those within and beyond our campus communities as we continue to provide leadership that brings those from different backgrounds together in support of our diverse students.”

AIEA also released a statement after Trump issued his executive order barring entry by most types of visa-holders from the seven Muslim-majority countries. The order directly affected U.S. higher education institutions, some of which had students and scholars from the affected countries who were outside the U.S. at the time the order was signed and found themselves temporarily unable to return.  Under the terms of the original, now halted-order, affected individuals already in the U.S. were not compelled to leave the country, but they would be unable to return if they left.

“We believe that international educators cannot be neutral in this case; we call for our colleagues to continue to advocate for the flow of people and exchange as vital to the continued advancement of knowledge and discovery, as well as greater human security and cultural understanding," AIEA said in its statement on the order.

"In this room, international educators, with ourselves and the people we work with, we have the capacity to give different frames for what global connectivity is all about,” Sutton said.

That doesn’t mean, she said, that international educators shouldn’t talk about the negative aspects of globalization. “I’m an anthropologist -- you know that I have railed against the bad aspects of globalization," she said. "But we also see the possibility for connectivity and mutual growth and benefit that are available to us through other forms of global connectivity."

2016 ElectionGlobalInternational Higher EducationEditorial Tags: Federal policyInternational higher educationForeign Students in U.S.Is this diversity newsletter?: Diversity Newsletter Order: 0

5 razones para estudiar Física

Universia - Tue, 02/21/2017 - 00:00
¿Crees que las Ciencias Físicas pueden ser lo tuyo? Te damos algunas razones para comprobarlo

La Física es una de las ciencias más antiguas y elementales. Se encarga del estudio de la materia, la energía, el tiempo y el espacio, así como las interacciones entre estos elementos. Tiene como objetivo conocer al universo y comprender los diferentes fenómenos que en él se manifiestan. Los profesionales en física se encargan de estudiar desde elementos como partículas y moléculas, hasta sistemas más completos como el cerebro humano, las estrellas y el espacio en su totalidad.

¿Te interesa estudiar Física? Más info


Por su amplio campo de desarrollo, la Física ocupa gran parte de las actividades humanas, por lo cual los conocimientos de los especialistas en el área son altamente valorados en diferentes empresas y organizaciones.

La Física es una disciplina recomendada para las personas que siente curiosidad por diferentes fenómenos naturales y quieren conocer más sobre su entorno y hallar explicaciones científicas a diversos sucesos. Es una profesión que trabaja de la mano con la tecnología y las nuevas energías, lo que permite a los trabajadores del área estar actualizados y bien informados sobre las últimas tendencias y descubrimientos científicos

Si terminaste la preparatoria y crees que tu carrera para el futuro puede estar asociada a las Ciencias Físicas, desde Universia te damos 5 razones para ayudarte a decidir.

1- Programas académicos de excelente nivel: estudiar Física en México te garantiza una educación de calidad. De acuerdo al Ranking QS de universidades, en nuestro país hay tres centros de estudio que se destacan en la enseñanza de esta disciplina. Ellos son la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), el Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN) y la Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla.

2- Es una de las tres carreras más rentables de México: estudiar Física es una de las mejor opciones de cara al futuro. Esta disciplina tiene uno de los retornos de inversión más rápidos por ser una de las profesiones mejor pagas en México, de acuerdo a los datos del Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad (IMCO).

3- Mínima tasa de desempleo: los avances de la ciencia requieren de profesionales capacitados con conocimientos y habilidades destacadas. Por tanto, la demanda de profesionales en el área es muy alta y tiene una mínima tasa de desempleo. Esto permite a los profesionales en Física elegir entre diferentes ofertas y gozar de una fuerte seguridad laboral.

4- Permite colaborar con el desarrollo científico: estudiar Física no solo te permitirá dedicarte a lo que más amas, sino que además podrás descubrir nuevas teorías y fenómenos a nivel científico, que pueden servir para buscar soluciones ante determinadas problemáticas y ayudar a la sociedad a crear un mundo mejor.

5- Aplicación teórica o práctica: los egresados de la carrera de Física tienen un amplio abanico de posibilidades laborales, pudiendo dedicarse a la investigación, como también a la docencia y la consultoría. Los físicos se desarrollan en sectores como la Física medicinal, la producción de energía, la óptica, el medioambiente, etc.

Curso online gratuito de Redacción en Internet dictado por una universidad española

Universia - Mon, 02/20/2017 - 22:00
Aprende las estrategias clave para lograr una redacción de calidad en el entorno virtual

La escritura es reflejo de quién somos y cómo pensamos, por ello es vital ejercitarla a menudo y escribir con claridad para lograr comunicarnos con eficacia y además causar una buena impresión en los demás. Hay algunas reglas de escritura que hay que tener siempre presentes, pero pueden variar dependiendo el medio por el que nos expresemos.

Regístrate en Universia y mantente actualizado sobre los cursos que surjan Más info


Dado el avance de Internet, la escritura por este canal se ha convertido en una herramienta vital para diversos estudiantes y profesionales. Pero las reglas del juego han cambiado, porque la normativa del español no puede implementarse igual en papel, como en la virtualidad: algunos recursos estilísticos y gráficos varían y debemos hacer uso de nuevas estrategias para comunicarnos con eficacia.

Ante esta necesidad, la Universidad de Navarra, uno de los centros de estudio terciarios más destacados de España, ha lanzado un curso de Redacción en Internet ideal para profesionales y estudiantes que quieran aprender diferentes conceptos y técnicas para una escritura eficaz en la red.

Sin importar el rubro profesional al que te dediques, este curso es de gran ayuda para comprender algunos conceptos vitales de la escritura en Internet como hipertextualidad, interactividad y multimedialidad, y utilizarlos para explotar todas sus posibilidades a la hora de redactar. Proporciona diferentes herramientas para una óptima redacción como diccionarios y procesadores de texto en la red. Se centra en la enseñanza de técnicas para una comunicación óptima y analiza la composición de los enlaces hipertextuales y la redacción orientada a los buscadores.

Los interesados en realizar el curso pueden hacerlo de manera online y totalmente gratis.  No se necesitan conocimientos especializados para cursarlo, solo conocimiento general de las reglas gramaticales esenciales y experiencia en uso de plataformas digitales como redes sociales y blogs. El programa comienza a dictarse el 27 de febrero de este año y tiene una duración aproximada de 6 semanas. Quienes quieran anotarse para comenzar, solo deben acceder a este enlace y pinchar en “Regístrate”.


US university will not back down on Dalai Lama invite

University World News Global Edition - Mon, 02/20/2017 - 13:26
A university in California has said it will not back down over its decision to invite the Dalai Lama, the Tibetan spiritual leader, to this year's commencement ceremony, despite strenuous objectio ...

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